Vitamins & Minerals for the Body.


Vitamins and Minerals the Body Needs

 Vitamins the Body Needs.

Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development.

There are 13 essential vitamins. These vitamins are required for the body to work properly.

Vitamin A helps to form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes and skin.

Good sources of vitamin A (retinol) include:

Cheese, eggs, oily fish, fortified low fat spreads, mink and yoghurt, liver and liver pate.   Liver is a particularly rich source of vitamin A, so once a week is sufficient.

Also, Yellow, red and green (leafy) vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes and red peppers, and yellow fruits, such as mango, papaya and apricots.

Vitamin B6 helps form red blood cells and to maintain brain function, vitamin B6 is also called pyridoxine.  This vitamin also plays an important role in the proteins that are part of many of the chemical reactions in the body.   The more protein that is eaten, the more pyridoxine the body requires.

Good sources of Vitamin B6 include salmon, lean chicken breast, lean pork, lean meat, sweet potatoes, bananas, potatoes, avocados, and pistachio nuts.


Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism.  It also helps with the formation of red blood cells and maintains the central nervous system.

Good sources of Vitamin B12 include lambs liver and kidneys, shellfish, sardines, lean beef, fortified cereal (fortified with B12), tuna, nutritional yeast, trout, salmon, milk.


Vitamin C, this vitamin is also called ascorbic acid.  It is an antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums.   It helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue, and is essential for would healing.  Vitamin C helps to boost the immune system to fight off infection.

Good sources of Vitamin C include red cherries and plums, rosehips, chilli peppers, sweet peppers, blackcurrants, thyme, parsley, beetroot and leaves, spinach, kale, kiwi fruit, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, lemons, all citrus fruits, strawberries and all fruits and fruit juices.


Vitamin D is known as the ‘sunshine vitamin’.  The body makes vitamin D after being in the sun, ten to fifteen minutes of sunshine three times a week is enough to produce the body’s requirement of vitamin D for most people.   Vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium, which is needed for normal development and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones.  It also helps to maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.

Good sources of Vitamin D include oily fish, tinned tuna, trout, salmon,  cod liver oil, and egg yolks.   It is sometimes difficult to eat food with Vitamin D in it, but sunshine is an excellent form of Vitamin D.  It doesn’t matter what time of the year it is, fifteen minutes in the sunshine is all that’s needed.


Vitamin E is an antioxidant and is also known as tocopherol.   It helps the body to form red blood cells and to use Vitamin K.

Good sources of Vitamin E include all nuts and seeds, sunflower oil, almond oil, salmon, avocado, trout, sweet red pepper, and green vegetables.


Vitamin K is required because without it blood would not stick together (coagulate).  Some studies also suggest that it is important for bone health.

Good sources of Vitamin K include kale, green vegetables, swiss chard, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, beef liver, pork chops, chicken, green beans, prunes, kiwi fruit, cheese, avocado, parsley, spinach, and peas


Biotin is essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the production of hormones and cholesterol.

Good sources of Biotin include bean, peas, lentils, nuts and seeds, liver, sweet potatoes, bananas, broccoli, yeast, avocado.


Niacin is a B vitamin that helps maintain healthy skin and nerv4es, it also has cholesterol-lowering effects at higher doses.

Good sources of Niacin include liver, chicken breast, tuna, turkey, salmon, anchovies, pork, minced beef, peanuts, avocado, brown rice, whole wheat, mushrooms, green peas, and potatoes


Foliate works with Vitamin B12 to help form red blood cells.  It is needed for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function.  Any female who is pregnant should be sure to get enough foliate.  Low levels of foliate are linked to birth defects such as spina bifida.

Good sources of Foliate include beans, peas, lentils, asparagus, eggs, green vegetables, beetroot, citrus fruits, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, nuts and seed, beef liver, wheat germ, bananas and avocado.


Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food, it also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol.

Good sources of Pantothenic acid include broccoli, white and sweet potatoes, cabbage, whole grains, mushrooms, nuts, beans, peas, lentils, dairy produce, chicken, and eggs.


Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) works with the other B vitamins, it is important for body growth and the production of red blood cells.

Good sources of Riboflavin include lean beef, tofu, fish, milk, mushrooms, lean pork, spinach, avocados, and eggs.


Thiamine (Vitamin B1) helps the body cells change carbohydrates into energy.  Getting enough carbohydrates is very important during pregnancy and breastfeeding.  It is also essential for heart function and healthy nerve cells.

Good sources of Thiamine include pork, fish, seeds, nuts, green vegetables, tofu, brown rice, squashes, asparagus, and seafood.


Choline helps the brain and nervous system to function normally.  A lack of choline can cause swelling in the liver.

Good sources of Choline include lean chicken, pork and beef, shrimp, beans, low-fat milk, broccoli and green peas.

Carnitin helps the body to change fatty acids into energy.

Good sources of Carnitin include lean meat, fish, chicken, turkey and milk.

Having read about Vitamins, click on the pictures below to read about Minerals the Body needs, and a conclusion to the articles.



Minerals the body needs